By Patricia O’Brien Libutti, PhD
On April 9, 1965, the 89th Congress voted on The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, P.L. 89-10).The time from introduction to vote on this bill was only 87 days – a record time for legislation. ESEA was set in the center of President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Povertyand was influenced by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ESEA provided, in a very short time, massive changes in the ways students who differed from the norm by reason of disadvantage would be treated.